2006                PhD in Chemical Sciences

Univ. of Ferrara, Department of Chemistry, Ferrara (IT)

Supervisor: Prof. F. Scandola. Co-advisor:  Prof. M. A. Rampi

Thesis title: Synthesis and characterization of molecular switches. Study in solution and onto metal surfaces.

2002                MSc in Chemistry

Univ. of Ferrara, Department of Chemistry, Ferrara (IT)

Supervisor: Prof. S. Benetti. Co-advisor: F. Scandola

Experimental MSc thesis title: Synthesis of diarylethenes for photochemical studies.

Final mark: 110/110


July 2021 – current      Assistant Professor

Department of Environmental and Prevention Sciences, University of Ferrara

Ferrara (IT)

Research Topic: heterogeneous photocatalysis, conductive polymers, dye sensitized solar cells, surface functionalization


Sep 2016 – June 2021

Post-Doctoral Researcher

Center of Translational Neurophysiology for Speech and Communication Unit,

Italian Institute of Technology, Ferrara (IT) Supervisors: Prof. L. Fadiga, Dr. D. Ricci.

Research Topic: Smart materials to improve the electrical performance and biocompatibility in brain-computer interfaces

Feb 2016 – Aug 2016

Post-Doctoral Researcher

Department of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara

Ferrara (IT). Supervisor: Prof. C. A. Bignozzi

Research Topic: New molecular transition metal complexes as redox mediators for dye sensitized solar cells. New HTM for Perovskite Solar Cells

Jan 2013 –Dec 2015

Research Associate

Department of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara

Ferrara (IT). Supervisor: Prof. C. A. Bignozzi

Research Topic: New materials for dye sensitized solar cells. Synthesis and characterization of oxygen- and hydrogen-evolving catalysts to be incorporated, in photoelectrochemical cells.

Oct 2009 –Dec 2012

Senior Researcher

Deypower Consortium Ferrara (IT)

Collaboration between the groups of Prof. C. A. Bignozzi (Univ. of Ferrara, IT), Prof. G. Viscardi (Univ. of Turin, IT), Prof. A. Di Carlo (Univ. of Rome, IT), and Permasteelisa (Treviso, IT).

Research Topic: New materials for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (Pedot based counter electrodes to replace Pt,  surface passivation for reducing electron back recombination, new organic-inorganic dyes)

Aug 2008 - Jul 2009

Post-Doctoral Researcher

Department of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara (IT)

Supervisor: Dr. C. De Risi

Research Topic: organo-catalysts as useful agents in Michael and Mannich reactions.

Mar 2007 – Feb 2008

Post-Doctoral Researcher

Department of Biology and Evolution, University of Ferrara (IT)

Supervisor: A. Medici.

Research Topic: Novel bile acid derivatives as potential drug carriers.

Jan 2006 – Aug 2006

Post-Doctoral Researcher

Department of Chemistry, University of Ferrara (IT)

Supervisor: A. Dondoni.

Research Topic: Development of C-glycosyl-b-lactams as potential new antibiotics.


Apr 2017         “Seal of Excellence” for the project proposal 740076, NEWHOC New Hole Transport Materials for Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells Submitted under the Horizon 2020’s Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions call H2020-MSCA-IF-2016 of 14 September 2016

Jul 2015          Visiting fellow

École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne CH

Supervisor: A. Hagfeldt

Research Topic: new oxadiazole based HTMs for perovskite solar cells

Oct 2002- Dec 2005

Fellowship funded by the European Project MWFM (from Molecular Wires to Functional Materials)


2009 – current     Supervisor of 6 students (Bachelor and Master degree) at the BSc Chemistry Course (Univ. of Ferrara, IT)

1           “Synthesis andphotoelectrochemical characterization of cathecol-functionalized polypyridine Ruthenium complexes”, Dott. A. Aliprandi (2010-2011), currently postdoctoral researcher at the institute ISIS of the University of Strasbourg (FR)

2           “Use of PEDOT (polietilenossi-tiofene) as Pt-alternative cathodic material for dye sensitized solar cells”, Dott. G. Tinazzo (2010-2011).

3           “Photoanode passivation for solar cells: a comparative evaluation of methodologies”, Dott. P. Rudatis (2012-2013), currently PhD student at Faculty of Technical Chemistry (Wien, AT)

4           “CH3NH3PbX3 perovskites as sensitizers for solid state solar cells: state of the art and future perspective”, Dott. L. Lambertini (2014-2015).

5           “P-type” solar cells based on the MAPbI3-xClx Perovskite”, Dott. M. Barbagallo (2014-2015).

6           “A molecular approach to CO2 reduction”, Dott. G. Fioravanti (2015-2016).

7           Single Walled Carbon Nanohorns Composite for Neural Sensing and Stimulation”, Dr. L. Lambertini (2017-2018).


2020 – current Professor for the BSc Biotechnologies Course “General and Inorganic Chemistry” (Univ. of Ferrara, IT; academic years 2020-2021, 2021-2022).

2014 – 2016    Professor for the BSc Chemistry Course “Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry” (Univ. of Ferrara, IT; academic years 2013-2014, 2014-2015, and 2015-2016)


Member of the editorial board of the international journal “Crystals” (MDPI, ISSN:2073-4352, Scopus ID 21100316020)


1)      “New horizons for PEDOT based drug delivery systemsInternational Conference on Advanced Materials-Spring Meeting eMRS 2019 (Nice, France, May 2019)

2)      "New poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Coatings for Neural Recording and Stimulation" 4th International Conference on Electrochemistry (Rome, IT, June 2018)

3)      "Multifunctional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) hybrid materials for Neuroelectronics" 46° Congresso Nazionale di Chimica Inorganica (Bologna, IT, September 2018)

4)      A new strategy to deliver Dexamethasone from PEDOT coatings" International Conference On Nanomedicine And Nanobiotechnology 2018 (Roma, IT, September 2018)

5)      "Conductive Polymers in Neuroscience: a Smart Drug Delivery Platform" Orbitaly 2018 (Milano, IT, October 2018)

6)      "Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-Single Walled Carbon Nanohorns Composite Coatings for Neural Sensing and Stimulation" Applied Nanotechnology and Nanoscience International Conference 2017 (Roma, IT, October 2017)  

7)      "A new biochemical approach for controlled release of dexamethasone from functionalized PEDOT coatings for neural applications" Applied Nanotechnology and Nanoscience International Conference 2017 (Roma, IT, October 2017)  

8)      "A New 1,3,4-Oxadiazole-based Hole Transport Material for Efficient CH3NH3PbBr3 Perovskite Solar Cells: Facile Synthesis and Energy Level Alignment" 1st ENERCHEM Congress of Renewable Energies (Florence, IT, February 2016)



  1. Dissette, V., Carli S., Pazzi, D., Bignozzi, C. A., Antimicrobial composition containing photochemically stable silver complexes, Patent Application WO 2013/120532, Patent EP 2814319 granted on 14/11/2018

2. Co-founder of the startup "Organic Bioelectronics S.r.l.” (January 2020)


1)      M. Bianchi,  A. De Salvo, M. Asplund, S. Carli, M. Di Lauro, A. Schulze-Bonhage, T. Stieglitz, L. Fadiga, F. Biscarini Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-Based Neural Interfaces for Recording and Stimulation: Fundamental Aspects and In Vivo Applications Adv. Sci 2022. DOI: 10.1002/advs.202104701

2)      P. Martini, A. Boschi, L. Marvelli, L. Uccelli, S. Carli, G. Cruciani, E. Marzola, A. Fantinati, J. Esposito, A. Duatti, Synthesis and Characterization of Manganese Dithiocarbamate Complexes: New Evidence of Dioxygen Activation Molecules 2021, 26(19), 5954. DOI:10.3390/molecules26195954

3)      S. Guzzo, S. Carli, B. Pavan, A. Lunghi, M. Murgia, M. Bianchi Evaluation of the In Vitro Biocompatibility of PEDOT:Nafion Coatings Nanomaterials 202111(8), 2022. DOI: 10.3390/nano11082022.

4)      E. Marchini, S. Caramori, C.A. Bignozzi, S. Carli On the use of pedot as a catalytic counter electrode material in dye‐sensitized solar cells Applied Sciences 2021, 11(9), Article number 3795. DOI: 10.3390/app11093795

5)      C. Boehler, S. Carli, L. Fadiga, T. Stieglitz, M. Asplund Tutorial: guidelines for standardized performance tests for electrodes intended for neural interfaces and bioelectronics Nat Protoc 2020, 15(11), 3557–3578. DOI:10.1038/s41596-020-0389-2.

6)      Carli S.,* Di Lauro M., Bianchi M., Murgia M., De Salvo A., Prato M., Fadiga L., Biscarini F. Water-based PEDOT:Nafion Dispersion for Organic Bioelectronics ACS Appl. Mat. Int. 2020, 12(26), 29807–29817. DOI:10.1021/acsami.0c06538.. DOI:10.1021/acsami.0c06538.

7)       Bianchi M., Carli S., Di Lauro M., Prato M., Murgia M., Fadiga L., Biscarini F. Scaling of Capacitance of PEDOT:PSS: Volume vs Area J. Mater. Chem. C 2020, 8(32), 11252-11262. DOI: 10.1039/D0TC00992J

8)      Di Lauro M., De Salvo A., Calandra Sebastianella G., Bianchi M., Carli S., Murgia M, Fadiga  L., Biscarini F. Tunable Short-Term Plasticity Response in Three-Terminal Organic Neuromorphic Devices ACS Applied Electronic Materials 2020, 2(7), 1849–1854. DOI:10.1021/acsaelm.0c00313

9)      Di Lauro M., Buscemi G., Bianchi M., de Salvo A., Berto M., Carli S., Farinola G. M., Trotta M., Fadiga  L., Biscarini F. Photovoltage generation in enzymatic bio-hybrid architectures MRS Advances 2020, 5(18-19). DOI: 10.1557/adv.2019.491

10)   Vomero M., Porto Cruz M. F., Zucchini E., Ciarpella F., Delfino E., Carli S., Boehler C., Asplund M., Ricci D., Fadiga L., Stieglitz T. Conformable polyimide-based μECoGs: Bringing the electrodes closer to the signal source Biomaterials 2020, 255, 120178. DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.120178

11)  Carli S.,* Bianchi M., Zucchini E., Di Lauro M., Prato M., Murgia M., Fadiga L., Biscarini F., Electrodeposited PEDOT:Nafion Composite for Neural Recording and Stimulation Adv. Healthc. Mater. 2019, 8 (19), 1900765. DOI: 10.1002/adhm.201900765.

12)  Carli S.,* Fioravanti G., Armirotti A., Ciarpella F., Prato M., Ottonello G., Salerno M., Scarpellini A., Perrone D., Marchesi E., Ricci D., Fadiga L. A New Drug Delivery System based on Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid and PEDOT Chem.-Eur. J. 2019,  25 (9). DOI:10.1002/chem.201805285

13)  Kosugi A., Castagnola E., Carli S., Ricci D., Fadiga L., Taoka M., Iriki A., Uschiba J. Fast Electrophysiological Mapping of Rat Cortical Motor Representation ona Time Scale of Minutes during Skin Stimulation Neuroscience 2019, 414, 245-254. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.07.011

14)  Carli S.,* Trapella C., Armirotti A., Fantinati A., Ottonello G., Scarpellini A., Prato M., Castagnola E., Fadiga L., Ricci D. Biochemically Controlled Release of Dexamethasone Covalently Bound to PEDOT Chem.-Eur. J. 2018, 24 (41), 10300-10305. DOI: 10.1002/chem.201801499.

15)  Carli S.,* Lambertini L., Zucchini E., Ciarpella F., Scarpellini A., Prato M., Castagnola E., Fadiga L., Ricci D. Single Walled Carbon Nanohorns Composite for Neural Sensing and Stimulation Sensors & Actuators: B. Chemical 2018, 271(15 October), 280-288. DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2018.05.083.

16)   Vomero M., Porto Cruz M. F., Zucchini E., Shabanian A., Delfino E., Carli S., Fadiga L., Ricci D., Stieglitz T. Achieving Ultra-Conformability With Polyimide-Based ECoG Arrays 2018 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 2018, 4464-4467. DOI: 10.1109/EMBC.2018.8513171

17)  M. Vomero, E. Zucchini, E. Delfino, C. Gueli, N. C. Mondragon, S. Carli, L. Fadiga, T. Stieglitz Glassy Carbon Electrocorticography Electrodes on Ultra-Thin and Finger-Like Polyimide Substrate: Performance Evaluation Based on Different Electrode Diameters, Materials 2018, 11, art.2486 (1-17). DOI:10.3390/ma11122486

18)  Castagnola E., Winchester Vahidi N., Nimbalkar S., Rudraraju S., Thielk M., Zucchini E., Cea C., Carli S., Gentner T. Q., Ricci D., Fadiga L., Kassegne S. In Vivo Dopamine Detection and Single Unit Recordings Using Intracortical Glassy Carbon Microelectrode Arrays MRS Advances 2018, 3(29), 1629-1634. DOI:10.1557/adv.2018.98.

19)  Boaretto R., Carli S., Caramori S., Bignozzi C. A., Saccone D., Magistris C., Barolo C., Viscardi G. A new ruthenium black dye design with improved optical properties for transparent dye sensitized solar devices Dalton Trans 2017, 46(47), 16390-16393.  DOI: 10.1039/c7dt03536e.

20)  Vomero M., Castagnola E., Ordonez J. S., Carli S., Zucchini E., Maggiolini E., Gueli C., Goshi N., Fadiga L., Ricci D., Kassegne S., Stieglitz T. Incorporation of Silicon Carbide and Diamond-Like Carbon as Adhesion Promoters Improves In Vitro and In Vivo Stability of Thin-Film Glassy Carbon ECoG Arrays Adv. Biosys. 2017, 2(1), 1700081. DOI: 10.1002/adbi.201700081.

21)  Vomero, M., Castagnola, E., Ordonez, J.S., Carli, S., Zucchini, E., Maggiolini, E., Gueli, C., Goshi, N., Fadiga, L., Ricci, D., Kassegne, S., Stieglitz, T. Improved long-term stability of thin-film glassy carbon electrodes through the use of silicon carbide and amorphous carbon NER 2017, 288-291. DOI:10.1109/NER.2017.8008347

22)  Castagnola E., Carli S.,* Vomero M., Scarpellini A., Prato M., Goshi N., Fadiga L., Kassegne S., Ricci D. Multi-layer PEDOT-dexamethasone and PEDOT-PSS-CNT coatings on glassy carbon microelectrode arrays for controlled drug release BIOINTERPHASES 2017, 12, 031002, DOI: 10.1116/1.4993140.

23)  Vomero M., Castagnola E., Ciarpella F., Maggiolini E., Goshi N., Zucchini E., Carli S., Fadiga L., Kassegne S., Ricci D. Highly Stable Glassy Carbon Interfaces for Long-Term Neural Stimulation and Low-Noise Recording of Brain Activity Sci Rep 2017, 7, 40332 DOI: 10.1038/srep40332

24)  Carli S.,* Casarin L., Syrgiannis Z., Boaretto R., Benazzi E., Caramori S., Prato M., Bignozzi C. A. Single Walled Carbon Nanohorns as Catalytic  Counter Electrodes for Co(III)/(II) Electron Mediators in Dye Sensitized Cells ACS Appl. Mat. Int. 2016, 8(23), 14604−14612, DOI:10.1021/acsami.6b03803.

25)  Magni M., Giannuzzi, R. Colombo, A. Cipolla, M. Dragonetti, C. Caramori, S. Carli S., Grisorio R., Suranna G. P., Bignozzi C. A., Roberto D., Manca M. Tetracoordinated bis-phenanthroline Copper-complex couple as efficient redox mediators for dye solar cells Inorg. Chem. 2016, 55(11), 5245–5253 DOI: 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.6b00204.

26)  Carli S.,* Correa Baena J. P., Marianetti G., Marchetti N., Lessi M., Abate A., Caramori S., Grätzel M., Bellina F., Bignozzi C. A., Hagfeldt A. A New 1,3,4-Oxadiazole-based Hole Transport Material for Efficient CH3NH3PbBr3 Perovskite Solar Cells ChemSusChem 2016, 9(7), 657-661. DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501665.

27)  Caramori S., Ronconi F., Federico Ronconi, Argazzi R., Carli S., Boaretto R., Busatto E., Bignozzi C. A. Solar Energy Conversion in Photoelectrochemical Systems in Bergamini G., Silvi S. (eds) Applied Photochemistry (2016). Lecture Notes in Chemistry, vol 92. Springer, Cham. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-31671-0_2

28)  Carli S.,* Benazzi E., Casarin L., Bernardi T., Bertolasi V., Argazzi R., Caramori S., Bignozzi C. A. On the Stability of Manganese Tris (β-Diketonate) Complexes as Redox Mediators in DSSCs Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2016, 18(8), 5949-5956. DOI: 10.1039/c5cp05524e.

29)  Karamshuk S., Caramori S.,  Manfredi N.,  Salamone M.,  Ruffo R., Carli S.,  Bignozzi C. A., Abbotto A. Molecular Level Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Organic Chromophores for p-Type Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Energies 2016, 9(1), 33 doi:10.3390/en9010033

30)  Cristino V., Marinello S., Molinari A., Caramori S., Carli S., Boaretto R., Argazzi R., Meda L., Bignozzi C. A. Some aspects of the charge transfer dynamics in nanostructured WO3 films J. Mater. Chem. A 2016, 4(8), 2995-3006.  DOI: 10.1039/C5TA06887H.

31)  Dalle Carbonare N., Carli S., Argazzi R., Orlandi M., Bazzanella N., Miotello A., Caramori S., Bignozzi C. A. Improvement of the electron collection efficiency in porous hematite using a thin iron oxide underlayer: towards efficient all-iron based photoelectrodes Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2015, 17(44), 29661-29670. DOI: 10.1039/C5CP04152J.

32)  Sharmoukh W., Attanzio A., Busatto E., Etienne T., Carli S., Monari A., Assfeld X., Beley M., Caramori S., Gros P. C. 2,5-Dithienylpyrrole (DTP) as a donor component in DTP–π–A organic sensitizers: photophysical and photovoltaic properties RSC Adv. 2015, 5(6), 4041-4050. DOI: 10.1039/c4ra10342d.

33)  Carli S.,* Casarin L., Caramori S., Boaretto R., Busatto E., Argazzi R., Bignozzi C. A. A viable surface passivation approach to improve efficiency in cobalt based dye sensitized solar cells Polyhedron 2014, 82(4), 173-180. DOI: 10.1016/j.poly.2014.06.004.

34)  Dalle Carbonare N., Cristino V., Berardi S., Carli S., Argazzi R., Caramori S., Meda L., Tacca A., Bignozzi C. A. Hematite Photoanodes Modified with an FeIII Water Oxidation Catalyst ChemPhysChem 2014, 15 (16), 1164–1174, DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201301143.

35)  Carli S.,* Casarin L., Bergamini G., Caramori S., Bignozzi C. A. Conductive PEDOT Covalently Bound to Transparent FTO Electrodes J. Phys. Chem. C 2014, 118(30), 16782-16790. DOI:10.1021/jp412758g.

36)  Miriam Mba, D’Acunzo M., Salice P., Maggini M., Caramori S., Campana A., Aliprandi A., Argazzi R., Carli S., Bignozzi C.A. Sensitization of nanocrystalline TiO2 with multi-branched organic dyes and Co(III)/(II) mediators: strategies to improve charge collection efficiency J. Phys. Chem. C 2013, 117(39), 19885−19896.  DOI:10.1021/jp4067586.

37)  Cristino V., Berardi S., Caramori S., R. Argazzi,  Carli S.,  Meda L., Tacca A., Bignozzi C.A., Efficient solar water oxidation using photovoltaic devices functionalized with earth-abundant oxygen evolving catalysts Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2013, 13083-13092. DOI: 10.1039/C3CP52237G.

38)  Carli S., Busatto E., Caramori S., Boaretto R., Argazzi R., Timpson C. J., Bignozzi C. A., Comparative Evaluation of Catalytic Counter Electrodes for Co(III)/(II) Electron Shuttles in Regenerative Photoelectrochemical Cells J. Phys. Chem. C 2013, 117, 5142−5153. DOI:10.1021/jp312066n.

39)  Bignozzi C.A., Argazzi R., Boaretto R., Busatto E., Carli S., Ronconi F., Caramori S., The role of transition metal complexes in dye sensitized solar devices Coord. Chem. Rev. 2013, 257 (9-10), 1472–1492. DOI:10.1016/j.ccr.2012.09.008.

40)  Indelli M. T., Carli S., Ghirotti M., Chiorboli C., Ravaglia M., Garavelli M., Scandola F., Triplet Pathways in Diarylethene Photochromism: Photophysical and Computational Study of Dyads Containing Ruthenium(II) Polypyridine and 1,2-Bis(2-methylbenzothiophene-3-yl)maleimide Units J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 7286-7299. DOI:10.1021/ja711173z.

41)  Benetti S., Carli S., De Risi C., Pollini G. P., Veronese A. C., Zanirato V., Ethyl-5-[(4 Methylphenyl)sulfonyl]-3-oxopentanoate: A blench-stable synthon for Ethyl-3-Oxopent-4-enoate (Nazarov’s Reagent) Synlett, 2008, 17, 2609-2612. DOI: 101055/s-0028-1083378.